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At A Theoretical Level

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Hildred Herz спросил 4 месяца назад

We found that cocaine-dependent topics showed an attentional predisposition to cocaine-related words revealed as a substantially bigger RT distinction (cocaine-related words — neutral words), confirming the increased salience of cocaine-related stimuli in this population (3, 4). We also discovered an increased IMT commission mistake rate and BIS-11 ratings in cocaine-dependent topics compared to controls, recommending impaired inhibitory control and increased impulsivity in cocaine-dependent subjects, which is consistent with previous studies (8, 9, 19). The most essential finding of the research study, however, was the observed association in between attentional bias and repressive control, as measured by IMT commission mistake rate, in cocaine-dependent subjects. At a theoretical level, it is possible that individuals with poor inhibitory control are less able to engage tactical procedures to override the attentional bias. This finding is consistent with a recent study (20) showing a positive correlation between the alcohol-related attentional predisposition and impulsive decision-making in a hold-up discounting job in heavy drinking teenagers. The considerable association between attentional predisposition and inhibitory control supports the hypothesis that «compound abusers with seriously compromised repressive control are especially susceptible to the eye-catching homes of substance-related stimuli» (18, p 12), although further research is required to delineate the nature of the relationship between attentional bias and repressive control.

Cognitive deficits in cocaine-dependent topics have been taken a look at utilizing neuroimaging techniques (10, 11, 19, 21). When cocaine-dependent subjects performed the drug Stroop job, job efficiency produced hypoactivation in the rostro-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/ median orbitofrontal cortex compared to baseline activity (21, 22). This change in brain activity was larger in cocaine-dependent topics than controls (22) and was bigger when the cocaine-dependent topics were exposed to cocaine-related words than when they were exposed to neutral words (21 ). Similar outcomes were obtained in ACC using the Stop Signal and Go/NoGo jobs (23, 24). It follows that ACC activity may underlie the significant correlation in between attentional bias to cocaine-related words and the IMT commission mistake rate in cocaine-dependent subjects discovered in today research study.

No considerable connection between attentional predisposition and drug use behaviors (overall years, days in previous 30 days and age to start drug usage) was observed in cocaine-dependent subjects. Similarly, Hester et al. (3) did not discover a relationship in between attentional bias and substance abuse history in cocaine-dependent subjects. However, amongst users of alcohol or cannabis, attentional bias to drug-related cues was higher in heavy users than in light users (18 ). In our study, all cocaine users were cocaine-dependent subjects. Perhaps no more increments in attentional bias take place once cocaine users have actually reached the state of dependence. Consistent with this, in heavy cannabis users there was no significant relationship between the user’s quantity or frequency of cannabis usage and the degree of their attentional bias (18 ).

Consistent with Vadhan et al. (4 ), we likewise discovered that treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent topics had a higher attentional predisposition to cocaine-related words than non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects. This distinction in attentional predisposition may be associated with other elements that differ between treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent topics, such as difference in the adverse effects of cocaine usage (26 ). Further research is needed to examine this relationship.

One major constraint of the existing research study is that there were substantial distinctions in age and gender circulation between control and cocaine-dependent subjects. However, for the controls, we did not find a considerable connection in between age and attentional predisposition (r = − 0.05, p = 0.77) nor in between age and impulsivity (for age and BIS-11 overall rating, r = 0.08, p = 0.64; for age and IMT commission error rate, r = 0.04, p = 0.81). Furthermore, we did not discover a significant difference in attentional predisposition or impulsivity in between female and male topics. Covariance analysis with age and gender as covariates likewise did not alter the significance of the results. Future studies of attentional predisposition might gain from greater control over the sociodemographic variables, along with more detailed quantitative information regarding recency and quantity of drug usage and use of other drugs. Another limitation is that we did not omit cocaine-dependent topics with cannabis or alcoholism due to the fact that of the high percentage of cannabis and alcoholism in this population. We did leave out topics whose urine THC screening or breath alcohol test was positive before behavioral tests to exclude possible acute impacts of cannabis or alcohol on efficiency during behavioral tests. Discrepancies in the proportion of present cigarette usage in between cocaine-dependent (80%) and control subjects (14%) is likewise a potential confounding factor in the difference on behavioral test performance in between the 2 groups. Future research studies will require to go to thoroughly to nicotine usage across all subject groups

In summary, today research study revealed that cocaine-dependent subjects had an attentional predisposition to cocaine-related words, poorer repressive control determined by the IMT, and higher impulsivity measured by BIS11. Attentional bias was positively associated with the commission error rate in the IMT. This positive connection in between attentional predisposition and inhibitory control recommends that a possible behavioral mechanism of impaired inhibition might underlie bad scientific outcomes in impulsive cocaine users, although further research study is warranted to illuminate this system. Behavioral strategies and medications targeted at improving impulse control and remediating attentional predisposition might prove to be useful tools in the treatment of cocaine reliance.

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